Which types of rock are used in radiometric dating
Any incoming negative charge would be deflected by the electron shell and any positive charge that penetrated the electron shells would be deflected by the positive charge of the nucleus itself. "Decay" simply refers to a meson or baryon becoming another type of particle, as the number of a certain type of particle goes down or decays as they are converted.
This can happen due to one of three forces or "interactions": strong, electromagnetic, and weak, in order of decreasing strength.
This is an example of the Weak force, and is fairly rare.
Electron capture requires that there be an electron in the vicinity of the nucleus, so its activity depends strongly on the configuration of the electron cloud, which depends on the chemical state.
The second way that a nucleus could be disrupted is by particles striking it.
However, the nucleus has a strong positive charge and the electron shells have a strong negative charge. Those that can decay are mesons and baryons, which include protons and neutrons; although decays can involve other particles such as photons, electrons, positrons, and neutrinos.
Radiometric dating requires that the decay rates of the isotopes involved be accurately known, and that there is confidence that these decay rates are constant. The physical constants (nucleon masses, fine structure constant) involved in radioactive decay are well characterized, and the processes are well understood.
Careful astronomical observations show that the constants have not changed significantly in billions of years—spectral lines from distant galaxies would have shifted perceptibly if these constants had changed.
There is another effect that takes place in the "electron capture" type of Beta decay.
As early as of 1673, John Ray, an English naturalist, reckoned with alternative that "im the primitive times and soon after the Creation the earth suffered far more concussions and mutations in its superficial part than afterward". Atoms consist of a heavy central core called the nucleus surrounded by clouds of lightweight particles (electrons), called electron shells.
The energy locked in the nucleus is enormous, but cannot be released easily.
With uranium-lead dating, for example, the process assumes the original proportion of uranium in the sample.
One assumption that can be made is that all the lead in the sample was once uranium, but if there was lead there to start with, this assumption is not valid, and any date based on that assumption will be incorrect (too old).
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Historically, these are also known as alpha, gamma, and beta decays, respectively.